None Of This Will Change

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54 thoughts on “None Of This Will Change”

  1. I feel this reality in my bones Eric. I keep saying “nobody gets what we do” and it is true. If your program and consistency and the skill level of your kids is not noted, then what??? I totally agree about changing the name of the class. If for no other reason than the kids understanding that they will leave you knowing how to understand and negotiate in Spanish with live people.
    We had PD day Friday which was largely a waste of time. But at least I got to know my middle school colleague who teaches French. There is no Spanish in the middle school so I am the only Spanish teacher in the district. Despite the challenges I see this as giving me a bit of freedom. Especially when we are supposed to be “vertically aligning” or whatever and “making sure that our teaching is not redundant or that there are no gaps. What does this even mean in our context?
    She pulled out her middle school curriculum and it was just a big ass list of colors, numbers and greeting. Yes, for 6 weeks students “study and learn” colors numbers and greetings. ???????? I definitely don’t overlap with that. Except why is our big “benchmark assessment” that we have to give at the end of the quarter (1st week of nov.)…a test of greetings???? With an accuracy rubric for speaking??? Really, for 2 months we do greetings?
    Since I am the NKOTB…and an anomaly of the system (understatement), of course I am playing “Miss Diplomacy” right now. Not that anyone asked, but for me, the overarching goal of the program is for kids to leave however many years of Spanish with a functional ability to communicate spontaneously, and with confidence and a sense of how they can continue on their own or learn any other language they choose in the future because they understand how to go about it. Listening, anyone?
    I don’t care if student x moves into another district and may need to “repeat” Spanish 1, precisely for the reasons Eric describes so painfully above. I have had many students move into other districts. some of them get bumped ahead and some get “put back”. The ones that get “bumped ahead” struggle more. Fortunately a few of them understand the difference in the intention of the programs. One student I ran into this summer told me “I didn’t hit it off very well with my French teacher. I asked her why she doesn’t speak French in class and she got angry with me. When I first got there, I didn’t get anything they were doing. I did not get the grammar, but I understood French.” BTW…this was my barometer student.
    On the other end of the spectrum, I have a student in my level 2 from another district. She keeps saying things like “this Spanish 2 is like my old Spanish 1.” She is clearly a memorizer and fast (visual) processor but has no, I mean ZERO ability to respond to simple questions in Spanish. She translates everything first, asks in English “did you ask me how my game went?” And then answers. It is so tiring. And she has no concept that she is weak in this area because she is hyper focused on the fact that she “already knows all these words” so is not learning anything. This is the opposite of the other scenario. Truly a cluster $#*@.
    I now understand the realities and (maybe) impossibility of teaching kids with CI at this point, in this community, but it doesn’t mean I totally give up. If I don’t teach with CI, at least building it up little by little, I really don’t understand how else I would teach a language??? I am not being a smart alec here. I really don’t understand how to teach a language with no auditory component. It may turn out I am not what they were looking for in a Spanish teacher. I will find out.
    As an aside (super relevant aside)…I was on a conference call with other teachers and guidance and a mom who could not make it in to school. Her son has severe anxiety and often misses school, so we were talking with her about strategies, etc. When it was suggested we could “give him some work to do in the learning lab” I said I would rather meet with him after school, maybe with a buddy if he doesn’t want to come alone. Mom said “oh absolutely. I don’t see how you can learn a language without hearing it spoken.” I kind of yelled “Thank you!!! Could you tell this to others?!?!” So there is at least one parent who gets it.
    In our PD day, my colleague in the high school described how she tests and grades. It is very much in alignment with reality (i.e., she said “I know how the kids are doing from our daily interactions and I refuse to knock down a kids grade if he bombs the test.”). So (DUH) it is all a big charade. BUT…at the same time she is a big proponent of keeping a pacing guide precisely for the kids who “may move to another district.” Ugh.
    I made my own goals clear. “I don’t think that is important. We can’t control what will happen. I would still rather have the kid leave me with an ability to function and negotiate in the language because nobody can take that away. It won’t dissipate into thin air as all the lists charts and thematic vocab does after the test.” Blank stares. Fidgeting. Oh well. 2 different planets, I guess.
    The topic of “big tests” came up too, and both colleagues were in total agreement that “we need to prepare them for college and tests. Um. No. These are 9th graders who will likely bail on Spanish after 1-2 semesters because it is not a requirement. The 1% of students who will take a language in college will be fine at that point because she is a 1%-er. Why should we gear our programs to 1%? I am more interested in the other 99%. Does this make me a socialist?
    I’m so disheartened to read this from Eric. And at the same time, it puts all of it into excruciating perspective and challenges us to really and truly let go of the outcome and focus all our energy into the process. This is at odds with a school system, but I don’t see any other way to be true to the students and to ourselves.

    1. Nice mini rant, jen. It’s real for how often it occurs with so many of us here. You said:
      “Really, for 2 months we do greetings?”
      The irony is that in my own long held position greetings are really hard to teach, at least in French. There are so many ways to ask and so many ways to respond. Sabrina’s plan definitely gets the greetings teaching done with class and effectiveness using only a few minutes per day, every day, a nice warm up to class that can sometimes spin into an entire block class of fun.

    2. Jen as the only Spanish teacher you are in a great position to bring change. You sound like me last month. I’m trying to learn though. We have agreed here after many years, and only lately, that it’s really the Prayer of St. Francis. Let’s find the wisdom in our hearts to let what we can’t change go. Like, really Ben. After 15 years of raging against the machine? But yes it is true. I can only change what is going on in m own classroom, and keep learning more about the infinitely layered onion that is TPRS. (The onion metaphor is really good. TPRS is truly multi-layered but also it brings tears but in the onion is good food for good health. I’ll bite into a nice onion if it saves my sanity in the classroom.)

    3. …why should we gear our programs to 1%?…
      Who knows? Maybe there is an energy in our society right now that favors the few – the 21st version of democracy. My colleague Amanda Baumann addressed this with me today. What role are the hidden few in our society playing in pushing an Arnie Duncan type of agenda on teachers like your colleague above whose continued loyalties to the textbook conflict with everything we know about how languages are acquired and in fact has not a shred of research on its behalf? OK I won’t go there. Just lettin’ off some steam. It collects. I see what is possible and I see what is being done and I get a bee in my bonnet. Hey, I’m getting better.

    4. Jen. First of all, I like your writing. You had me laughing “She pulled out her middle school curriculum and it was just a big ass list of colors, numbers and greeting.”
      Sometimes it’s comedy to see the big charade that teachers go through. However, that is the way they have been manipulated. Whether through the district, a supervisor or teacher credential program.
      You also wrote: “I now understand the realities and (maybe) impossibility of teaching kids with CI at this point, in this community, but it doesn’t mean I totally give up”.
      Truly an excellent point here. Despite our circumstances, we shouldn’t give up. I teach at two schools. I am a department chair of one teacher at a high school that is using an online platform. My job is to only monitor the 95 students. Their work: vocab lists and output. IDIOTS! I am now pulling kids into a conference room. It will be “conversation”
      I am also the only one teaching French at my middle school. The only person on me is my BTSA supervisor — I have to be diplomatic but conscious of being manipulated. I have to have my arms ready.
      BUT if I twist my reality into a positive one like Eric is doing with rebranding and finding support, then I feel that many of us can continue doing excellent work, for the kids.

  2. I shared this all with my principal and he included in his response that HS practices are sometimes “disturbing,” he told me that renaming my program “makes sense to me” and he told me to “keep the faith!” Wow, right?!
    He also said it’s “super important” that he has never had any complaints from parents. We’ve noticed here before, how that is a big one for admin.
    So, I am truly going to try to rename the program. Leaning towards: “Spanish Fluency.”
    Spanish Fluency is probably the best way to label what I do and still have people understand the course title. And the concept of fluency does dramatically differ from what the high school teachers are doing. In this way, I teach and test Spanish Fluency. They teach and test Spanish Accuracy.
    Although, included in the term “fluency” is a degree of accuracy. Speaking fast and incomprehensibly is not fluency. Nor is memorizing a speech. You have to reach some threshold of accuracy such that you are comprehensible. Fluency, to me, is speed + comprehension/comprehensibility + non-rehearsed. There is receptive fluency and productive fluency.

    1. Great definition, Eric. (Fluency, to me, is speed + comprehension/comprehensibility + non-rehearsed.) It seems that “fluent” is a word laymen can understand: “I know some Italian but I’m not fluent.”
      Great support from the principal. You are making his school look good. I am guessing that he is not a professional language teacher, and so he takes a more common sense approach to language learning.
      In my district, the Middle school teachers have great support from their principals. In the HS, however, the principal is a former FL teacher and we suffer the effects.

  3. A lot of what we experience is simply finding out what we are really up against. I thought that if they only knew they would come along with us. But it is so complicated, so much is involved. And so I spoke out in enthusiasm, thinking that we could all work together and make it a better place, and I was met with a variety of responses, a number of which were disheartening. And then I withdrew somewhat, although actively trying to encourage fellow teachers of the same course to meet together and plan. And then, Friday. We too had a PD day. But some of the greatest encouragement came from the Middle School teachers. I found out one has been experimenting with TPRS/CI. Between the two of them they talk opening, respecting what each other is doing. They looked out for each other, honoring that they each have their reasons for rearranging the topics of the book in different ways in their classes to best meet the needs of their clients. They do not try to enforce a lock-step mindset on each other. It may not sound like pure land, but it did supply a breath of needed fresh air this year.
    I am perhaps overly hopeful about the future. I think that we may reach a critical mass that will turn the tide. I am hearing some good things. But I am cautious. I do not want it to be like the divisive, ram-this-through, product-over-people approach I experienced last recently. It is so easy to gain the upper hand and forget to be mindful of others who are not ready for a full step in a different direction. Maybe this is a year to just learn to be a good loser, so that some day I will be mindful of the need to be a good winner.

    1. It’s so hard when kids are on the line. But yeah. You catch more flies with honey. I am glad to have the encouragement to keep my efforts small. I’m not a religious person but I do have an evangelical streak in me!! I have to remember to focus my energy where it’s wanted and can make a difference. I’m an energetic person but I don’t want to burn out wasting time on people who have no desire to change. These recent conversations about the topic of fitting into the system and taking care of ourselves have been good for me.

    2. Nathaniel you wrote:
      “I do not want it to be like the divisive, ram-this-through, product-over-people approach I experienced last recently”.
      Developing good relationships like the middle school teachers you mentioned probably comes first. Afterwards, you can mention some “strategies” that you do to help kids “retain” the “vocab”.
      You basically, have to speak their language — ha ha.

  4. The HS already doesn’t see us elementary teachers as offering “Spanish 1,” hence why only 5 kids from 5 schools skipped level 1! It will fly 🙂
    I am really excited about this!
    I think it is super important that EVERYONE (admin, parents, kids, teachers) distinguish my program from traditional Spanish programs. And rather than cause division, it should bring clarity. There will be no more conflict due to trying to get my (shiny) round peg to fit their (antique) square hole 😉 And it should be a source of school pride. Just like there are different math programs (algebra, geometry, etc.), there are different FL programs. Briefly, here is the backwards-design to my course:
    Goals: Communicate fluently
    Assessments: Receptive fluency first, productive fluency emerges after
    Approach: Comprehensible immersion, comprehension first
    Tools*: TPR, TPRS, NA, ER, MT
    Content: High-frequency + interest/need
    I challenge every teacher to come up with their alignment. A very helpful exercise for any teacher, any subject. I bet the high school would have a hard time doing this, because their goals are not based on what they want kids to DO with language, rather they are based on non-language related goals, e.g. cover the book, pass a test, etc. and what they want kids to know ABOUT the language, e.g. memorize these rules and charts. Although not explicit, the high school’s alignment would look totally different, something like this:
    Goals: Communicate accurately**
    Assessments: grammar, vocabulary, 4 skills
    Approach: Traditional = Grammar + output practice – present, practice, produce (PPP)
    Tools: worksheets, group output activities, e.g. role-plays
    Content: Textbook grammar and vocabulary – only 10-50% of textbooks are high-frequency (Davies & Face, 2006) and it’s not personalized
    I hope the simple qualification of labeling it a “fluency” program be a model for many many more school districts to follow.
    *Tools, rather than “methods.” A “method” implies a formula with rigid steps. These are my 5 broader means (sets of activities) of creating comprehensible immersion.
    **The goal of accurate communication is fine, but developmentally impossible if demanded on a teacher’s timeline, rather than respect a student’s internal timeline. Also, this is far from the only goal. The HS also wants kids to be able to know a lot of words, grammar concepts, culture, and puts much more emphasis on accurate written skills.

    1. I think, Eric, that you have a Spanish language course, and the high school has a Spanish linguistics course. (Though they don’t really have a linguistics course, either, but sounds closer to that.)
      Smart to change your course title to affirm its goals. The high school programs your students enter sounds like the worst scenario I’ve heard!

        1. Well, they don’t even teach “linguistics.” They teach “traditional grammar,” a grammar that is insufficient and inadequate to actually describe the full grammatical properties of a language!!! An actual course in linguistics would be about universal grammar, tree diagrams, and connectionist networks.
          The island of MV is behind the times, even more so than the rest of the FL programs in the US.

    2. Eric. I am so glad that you have turned your situation around. Your mentality is inspiring for this first-year teacher of French (and Spanish). I have checked out your website. Your videos on teaching English in Honduras are spectacular.
      I recently saw the movie Field of Dreams with Kevin Costner.
      In it a voice tells him “if you build it he will come”. In your case, “if you build it, they will come”.
      I think the life lesson is creating your own reality, anyway you can. Call it mental Kung-Fu.

  5. Elementary and/or Middle School teachers are in a good position to do this, but what about renaming HS courses? If we are singletons, no problem, but what if we teach Spanish 1, and other colleagues teach Spanish 2+? We can’t rename our course without also offering what the rest of the department thinks of as their prerequisite. More courses means more teachers, which means more money. That will not change.

    1. Other academic subjects have roughly sequenced courses with different goals and content and one class doesn’t necessarily prepare you for the next (maybe it does more so in math).
      Science: earth science -> biology -> chemistry -> physics
      Math: algebra -> geometry -> trigonometry -> calculus
      Spanish 1, 2, 3, and 4 has no meaning. You could have Spanish fluency, Spanish grammar, Spanish culture, and Spanish literature.
      Maybe if you had “Spanish Fluency for Novices” and “Spanish Fluency for Intermediates,” then that could count as 2 levels of a language, then they take 2 years of a different Spanish strain. Or students could take 2 years of the Novice track and 2 years of the Intermediate track (multi-level classes). I don’t know.
      This is easier to do if we are singletons or if an entire department decides they want to shift to Spanish Fluency 1-4. And maybe that’s how this starts to make people see the difference.

  6. Larry Hendricks

    Go with the title change, Eric. Estoy de acuerdo. I named my course for adults, “Fluency Faithful.” “Faithful” because that’s my personal commitment to the tried-and-true TPRS philosophy and methodology.
    That HS is doing a big disservice to those incoming freshmen. A high price to pay for some inflated egos.

    1. De acuerdo. I call my adult class “Spanish Made Easy.” After the first class, I always get a handful of adults who comment: “I wish my high school class had been like this” or “I’d be fluent by now had I been taught like this.”

  7. I like this a lot Eric. No, I love it. It answered my early morning quandary.
    I am clearly channeling this conversation. I woke up today thinking “I need to be ridiculously transparent with what I am doing. To the point of spelling it all out. I need to make a clear distinction between what I do and what a traditional curriculum does.” So THANK YOU for stating it so clearly in very few words.
    I’m a singleton in the whole district so I am going to cut and paste some of what you wrote above (with full credit) and use it to start a dialogue with my curriculum director and also the school social worker. Can I? Please?
    The only reason I am cutting and pasting is because you are so much more concise and articulate than I am. And I need to do this quickly in order to determine whether it is worth it for me to stay at this job. I think it benefits both parties because if I am really not what they are looking for and/or they are not really what I am looking for it is best to figure that out ASAP.
    I keep using the term “acquisition” but that is not really comprehensible to anyone. Fluency is perfect, especially with this definition of fluency: ““Fluency is not knowing a lot of words; it’s using a few words in a way that sounds natural to a native speaker.” I don’t know who said that. It wasn’t me. Someone in this community though. Thank you whoever you are!
    Going with Curriculum director bc on the heels of our PD day with vertical alignment and such it is good timing. I have a buncha questions for her anyway. Social Worker bc of the trauma in the community and the adaptations / scaffolding of skills I plan to do because of this reality. Also bc Social Worker could be a key supporter in me implementing CI in this school. So far, of anyone who has been in my classroom (AP, P, CD, and classroom teacher)…she is the only one who clearly “gets” what this is about on a human level.

  8. I am going to try calling it “Spanish for Fluency” or “Functional Spanish” or “Spanish that you can actually use and not graduate from HS and tell everyone 10 years later that you took 2 years of spanish and can’t remember anything.” Ok that is a bit wordy.
    IDK…”functional” is a big buzzword in the fitness industry so maybe??? Obviously fitness buzzwords work bc the “Boot Camp” got 6 kids to skip Spanish 1 even though they can’t understand or speak Spanish.

    1. Jen, I hope we both benefit from these discussions!
      Functional Spanish is good . . . the idea behind “proficiency” is “functional language use.”
      I wonder if the fluency-accuracy contrast (although not actually a clear dichotomy) be the one that people best grasp.

      1. I think “fluency” is definitely more marketable and comprehensible for the general public. Everyone would “love to be fluent” in another language. That is the whole point of it. “Being fluent” can mean whatever you as the learner envision. The point is that when people hear the word “fluent” they picture being able to understand and be understood in the real world, whereas when they hear “Spanish 1” or “High School Spanish” they picture drills and memorizing things they can never use in real life.
        Functional is an accurate description, but I think it is still a few shades too vague. I will go with fluency!
        I think (imagine?) that by using the word “fluency” in the title of our classes, it will be more obvious why we have the rules that we do. Fluency = understanding and being understood= interaction = listen, understand, clarify, respond. Que no???
        Also, re: vertical alignment / scope and sequence. I have always loved the idea of calling the “levels” by a different name and allowing the kids to choose two years of the “novice”(or whatever) level and still get 2 credits. It makes way more sense, and the kids would make more gains.

        1. Jen, my school now has just what you say in the last paragraph. Students can stay at the novice level, intermediate level, etc. for 2 school years. It means the curriculum needs to be different (ex, different novels, same language complexity level though). For French & Chinese, that means they’re in the same classroom as the complete beginners to that level, though.

          1. Yeah Spanish for Fluency is a little in your face.
            Diane, that is a very good change you guys are doing at Valor Christian. Was that from you and Lynette?

          2. Lynnette pressed it through with administrators all last school year, but we are only implementing it with Latin, French, and Chinese this year. Spanish will use that system next year. I really like it!
            However, there are still problems with levels and titles of levels because one administrator didn’t want to say “Pre-AP” as a course title. Supposedly next year they’ll figure the titles out, which might straighten out confusion related to my level 3 & 4 classes. They are very different proficiency levels but considered sort of one, sort of two “levels” this year. I don’t know yet if it means the Advanced class can take Advanced II next year, or if they end up only being able to do something that is Pre-AP next year. Some would do better to stay at the same level but keep getting more Chinese.

          3. I used to think we should align with ACTFL “proficiency levels,” but now I see why that wouldn’t work.
            First off, the proficiency guidelines are intended as a way to rate someone based on the ACTFL tasks (e.g. OPI for oral proficiency). When we take their proficiency labels and apply them to our classes, then we are corrupting the meaning of those “proficiency ratings.” Anything short of giving a kid an OPI is not sufficient to rate someone’s proficiency, at least as defined by ACTFL on ACTFL’s scale.
            The reality is that teachers say “proficiency” but really mean “performance,” the latter being language use on familiar content and tasks.
            Real proficiency takes A LONG time to develop. It took me 1 year of immersion to increase a sub-level and I was assessed by Peace Corps Language testers trained by ACTFL.
            And the ACTFL levels are not linear, i.e. there is not equal distance between each sub-level.
            I like the idea of leveling classes based on what students can communicate (comprehend & produce), but I don’t think we can use ACTFL’s scale, nor is it necessarily “proficiency” we are rating.

          4. Eric, I interpret Performance vs. Proficiency to mean “how well can you do what we practiced?” vs. “how well do you respond to new contexts?” All of the activities we do with a story is Performance-based. I see parallel readings, and MovieTalk as ways to test Proficiency. No?

          5. Thanks for Paul’s email. I think that Lynnette talked with Diana (at least) about titles and levels. What we’ve gone with this year, and while borrowing terms from proficiency levels, these are NOT saying the students in those classes have ACTFL proficiency at these levels:
            Novice I & II
            Intermediate I & II
            Advanced I & maybe II (This is the one that got scrambled for me. In French, the third/fourth year groups could be combined, but in Chinese that would have made many students unhappy because of how different the third/four year students’ abilities are. I know there would be some who’d say combining levels is great, but I think that reading is a big game changer for Chinese.)
            Fourth group for me, this year: Applied Language. French has AP. We had asked for “Pre-AP” and then a fifth section, “AP” added for me next year, first time Valor will have students who had any Chinese before high school.

    1. Well, working towards fluency. But we do get micro-versions of it. Teaching and testing fluency has a totally different feel than accuracy.
      While the traditional teachers ask stuff like this, with 1 right answer:
      1) I like apples.
      a) Me gusta las manzanas.
      b) Me gustan manzanas.
      c) Me gustan las manzanas.
      d) Gusto las manzanas.
      . . . all answers would be accepted in a fluency class. Actually, this type of question would never be asked 🙂

    2. Angie I think that this question has explosive qualities:
      …Is fluency a realistic goal for classroom language education?…
      I thought of this suddenly when doing some PQA at the board today. The same question. I said to myself, “Should I have written this down and translated it? This is a kind of fringe word. There are so many fringe words. It seems as if there are so many words. By staying in bounds (mega supercalifragilistically key concept) we are working in a little planetary system within a vast universe. How to teach all the words that there are in French? How to teach for fluency?”
      I don’t think it’s a realistic goal at all. All I myself feel I can teach for is that they love it and want more of it over their lifetimes. Since I wasn’t born in France, with 37 years teaching it and 10-12 years “learning” it before I went to France and began working for a company that needed a translator/interpreter in heavy industry in upstate New York, I am STILL a long way from fluency. I don’t think non-native speakers can ever be fluent – they can only be good imitators.
      But then why aren’t all WL teachers native speakers? Because it’s hard for a native speaker to teach their native tongue, in my opinion. Too boring, really. But my love for French is so full of passion and admiration that when I teach French my heart is happy for I am with the language I love and so what if the kids don’t know that I’m not fluent – my love of it trumps any knowledge as the heart trumps the mind in all things.

      1. I love this comment. I think as a non native I have the gift of being able to be slow and stay in bounds better. My French is way deeper than my Spanish and I find it easier to go slow and stay in bounds in Spanish. It’s so fun to as you said be with these languages I love all day every day. The grammar folks also love the language but sadly they don’t spend as much time with it around them. I feel for them.

  9. The more I think about it, the more it seems to me that this might be the solution…formalize the division that has been so painful. Have CI classes and grammar-translation classes as separate offerings. It would help alleviate everyone’s confusion.

  10. Angie brings up a good point. If we advertise fluency it is kind of untrue. We teach FOR fluency better than anyone out there but it maybe there is something else out there that is more accurate…

      1. It is a very common word with Susan Gross. Once she taught me something and I remember (because if you have had the pleasure of being trained by Susie you know that everything she says is pure gold and worthy of reflecting on from year to year) that after she explained it to me she said, “That will help you with your fluency program, Ben.” I remember saying to myself, “My fluency program? I have a fluency program? Hey, maybe I DO!” It made me feel pride and cemented me even more to TPRS.
        But it’s only a fluency program inasmuch as we start a ball rolling up a hill and then the individual students take it to fluency or pure imitation thereof or not. One thing is certain, we have launched a thousand young little boats with candles in them onto the Lake of Acquisition and Enjoyment. It may still be night, but the boats are still afloat (a lot got knocked over into the water by big winded high school teachers like those Eric describes there in Martha’s Vineyard, but many are still afloat.
        I apologize if that image of knocking boats over and snuffing out lights is offensive to anyone, but isn’t it true? Isn’t that what they happens? Sometimes you just have to say what is really happening. I can answer the question – it is what is happening. And the world is darker for it because there is sheer joy in expressing oneself in understanding, reading, speaking and writing in a foreign language. Where is the joy for me? In my classroom. Every day. Thank you, God!

  11. I’m saving this tab on my browser. I love your re-naming of your course and how you call out the HS course for what it is — I would add Memorizing.
    Keep the fighting the good fight. Afterall, we are grounded in truth. Now, let’s see what’s on the menu for my lesson today… which starts in 10 mins.

    1. …now, let’s see what’s on the menu for my lesson today… which starts in 10 mins….
      Steve you may be planning too much. I find that 1 min. – grabbing one Anne’s script books just before class – works fine for me and keeps me interested bc at the moment of starting class it is all fresh and new to me. I really like that.

      1. Thanks Ben for reminding me to keep the CI fresh. I’m not sure how to apply scripts. What’s the procedure? Could you add some links here for scripts.

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