Curriculum – 5 – Definition of Scope and Sequence

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62 thoughts on “Curriculum – 5 – Definition of Scope and Sequence”

    1. Isn’t it sad that I didn’t learn this pre-service? I had to dig around to find support for what I knew to be true from my classroom experience, and it was very hard to find. Being self-educated on this matter makes me a little insecure: do I really know this? But I do. It’s real.

      But I love that Ben, jen, and you Steven affirm this for me. You get that it’s real too.

      Keep the “I feel ya’s” coming.

      1. I feel ya! I am soaking in all of this information! My administration is fantastic to work for; they really let me do my thing without the need for me to explain anything…however…I want to be prepared, armed, if you will, with the best explanations as to WHY I am doing what I am doing. So…from one of my all-time favorite movies:

        [Kuzco and Pacha are tied to a tree branch floating in a river]

        Pacha: Uh-oh.
        Kuzco: Don’t tell me. We’re about to go over a huge waterfall.
        Pacha: Yep.
        Kuzco: Sharp rocks at the bottom?
        Pacha: Most likely.
        Kuzco: BRING IT ON!!!

  1. The problem with curriculum mapping or vertical/horizontal alignment is that you lose focus on the kids.

    The problem with curriculum mapping or vertical/horizontal alignment is that you lose focus on the kids.

    The problem with curriculum mapping or vertical/horizontal alignment is that you lose focus on the kids.

    ***This has been my argument / diplomatically-posed question at all kinds of “vertical alignment” and “curriculum mapping” and “cross-curricular collaboration” meetings in the past…??? million years ???

    How do the marketing folks reconcile “student-centered” and “vertically-aligned?” I guess now that we are charging out of the closet, I don’t much care. Frankly my dear I don’t give a damn.

    So liberating 😀

  2. “Note that ”sequence” is not a time frame or unit plan or schedule. It’s a logical progression from less to more challenging…beginner to advanced. The focus is on ability, not pushing through units or themes in a given time-frame.”

    But this phrase “Scope and Sequence” has been hijacked by textbook companies. At the beginning of every textbook, in an effort to sound like they are “in alignment” and sell more books, they present their chapters with the words “scope and sequence.” That’s inviting teachers who aren’t really sure what this phrase means buy into it and up to equate “Scope and Sequence” with moving through chapters in a textbook. It doesn’t help that everyone else in the building is as ignorant as they are and are all doing the same thing. So the lemmings jump off the Scope cliff in Sequence.

    1. Steven Ordiano

      “At the beginning of every textbook, in an effort to sound like they are “in alignment” and sell more books, they present their chapters with the words “scope and sequence.”

      Yes. Textbooks that do not align with research of SLA nor address the needs and backgrounds of students.

      “So the lemmings jump off the Scope cliff in Sequence.”

      Exactly. My next door Spanish teacher has asked “do you use the textbook?” which incited a hostile environment. He claimed that books are written by “doctors”. He is a straight from the textbook guy but gets no critique from the principal. Ridiculous. Anyway, we settled our differences. He’ll be gone in about three years. I really want to there to be a newbie so I can work with her/him. A CI department in Fresno? Whoa.

    2. Can I use some of y’alls quotes in the (mostly copied and pasted document from Lance whom I will email for permission) curriculum plan I am going to hand in?

      See? I was RIF-ed and still have to turn in “Unit Plans” but instead I am going to unleash the beast. What the heck? What are they gonna do, fire me?

      1. Jen, there is only one language thing I have creative rights to, and that will be published and available on Amazon this year. Everything else is not my work. I’ve compiled and formatted, but I haven’t synthesized anything.

        Use my stuff.

  3. Alisa Shapiro-Rosenberg

    Claire and Ben are exhorting us to reclaim what’s ours- the mantle of Language Acquisition Expert. We know the theory and we keep reading and learning more. We know the practice – and are always improving upon it. When the 3rd piece to the trifecta puzzle, Assessment, is demystified as well, we will be untouchable!!
    Bill VanP wrote that ‘Where are the Language Experts?’ open letter to university WL departments. Once we get our house in order, how can the movement do anything BUT trickle up – through high school and university?
    We will be filling a void with rock solid research & best practices.
    I had a thought abt the term ‘Scope & Sequence’: It was probably/maybe? invented for concept-driven curriculum – where you had to know additional and subtraction before you got to multiplication and division. know about towns, cities, states and countries as you get more specific in geography, social studies, etc…
    Ours isn’t concept driven. It doesn’t matter what we teach first or next (other than hi-frequency, in-bounds and developmentally appropriate). So for us the term is misleading.
    Am I a too-concrete thinker who clearly spends most of her waking hours w/people under the age of 10?

    1. Steven Ordiano

      Alisa, I get what you’re trying to say about S and S. Your situation is elementary. You need the most concrete of documentation.

      What about learning behaviors that are conducive to acquisition? Are there not skills for students to learn? Can students demonstrate these in different ways?

      1. …what about learning behaviors that are conducive to acquisition? Are there not skills for students to learn? Can students demonstrate these in different ways?…

        Steve how familiar are you with our jGR/ISR?

        1. Steven Ordiano

          Ben. In a wide definition of curriculum I would include the teaching of these behaviors as well as any others to demonstrate understanding. This includes ones not included in jGR like freewrites, drawing out scenes of a story and acting.

          1. Steven Ordiano

            jGR is like an expectations for classroom management which can be considered curriculum BUT when students do things to demonstrate understanding, that is when we can come in with assessment to evaluate it. In a sense it becomes curriculum because we are training them with communication skills of listening, making eye contact and responding the way that novices can.

            PS I just had a serious chat with my LV 2 class and took away their distracting things — some drumsticks and a stress ball that was being tossed around as I was reading. They had their excuses. I did not even listen to what they had to say because I was hurt but angry. I explained to them I have tried to instill some skills for success but that I was feeling disrespected when they do those behaviors. I then starting telling individual students to stop their side conversations. I looked them dead in the eyes.

            Then a kid yelled from the back of the room, “I hate this class!” I had it. I told him to talk outside with him as I put up a warm-up exercise for them. I became human. I asked him what he thought I felt when he said that. He said “nothing”. I looked at him in the eyes and told him that I was hurt and disrespected because as teachers we are passionate about what we do. This shit was long overdue but I refused to do it because I wanted to be nice; because I wanted buy-in; because if I ignored it then I thought it might go away. No. Next year I will have eighth graders and I have to up my game with classroom management.

            When I returned there were complaints about not giving warnings. I told them that I was my fault for not being consistent. I also told them that I should have never given warnings in the first place. There were still kids finishing history homework in the back even though I told them explicitly to put it away. They were girls. I couldn’t save the whole class and stay sane. Not completely.

          2. Steven,

            I’m sorry you had a class like that too. Mine does not sound as challenging as yours, but I know exactly what you were feeling. I am focusing this summer on classroom management strategies. I have so much to learn!

          3. Steven Ordiano

            This class was in their second year but first year (along with me) doing tprs. They wanted games, candy and movies like they did last year with their substitutes. So its been an uphill battle but Im a lot stronger dor sticking to my guns.

          4. Alisa Shapiro

            Steve- I do not grant excuses to kids when I say that in late May, at least in Chicagoland when the sun finally comes out y todo se pinta de verde, ALL BETS ARE OFF.
            My colleague sets this bar: ‘To finish the year, without incident.”
            The kids are done with us, with the routine, with sitting in a chair, with being courteous to grownups.
            It’s not a coincidence that the disrespect came flying at you at this particular time of year.
            I run a very tight ship with clear expectations, and I’ve been fielding some very risqué behavior lately, including potty talk over the past few days. I sternly remind them that we are in school and I’m looking for appropriate answers…but there’s a sense, at this late stage, of “Oh yeah? What’re ya gonna do about it?”
            And my answer is, “finish the year, without incident.”

          5. I had one of the toughest years this year. I have pretty big classes around 37 in each one. The first year teacher last year was brand new and the kids ate him alive he did his best but he is super non-confrontational and was very afraid of his students and their parents. So now in second year they were so bad and they had never had a CI teacher before so I not only got push back I had full on venom spit at me by one girl (who happens to be the assistant superintendent’s daughter). I tried for buy in and was my cool and funny self but these kids were just assholes. It got so bad, one of my students is the daughter of the IA who supervises our ISS, told her mother that the kids were so mean to me it broke her heart. I got a call from our ISS person to ask if I were ok. It was a wake-up call. I told them that it was over and I wasn’t going to deal with it. I gave them a huge lecture about how I am the expert not them and the things we do in my class are how we learn language and if they don’t like it they can leave. I said this class is not required to graduate so if you don’t like find another class. Community college doesn’t require FL in my state so don’t worry. Later I told them that since it was too late if they don’t shape up then they can do Bryce hedstrom’s alternate learning plan. No body took me up on that offer and they have been a lot better ever since. Maybe since I am finally no longer probationary I don’t give a damn. We are expert professionals and I will not let a child tell me how to run my class or act like that any more.

          6. Steven Ordiano

            Right on Russ! Im one of those non confrontational guys too but enough was enough even though it is two weeks before school ends. I am on probabtion but I choose when admin evaluates me. They love my work in my level 1 class. My best class is a mix of 7th and 8th but it’s level one. The thing is that this class is considered a high school class so students will get credit and it will ahow up on their transcripts when they apply to college.

            Totally agree with you about being the expert. The class has been draining but I basically tried tprs/ci with them so I can spend more time with my family instead of prepping. In the end it was a mix of book work, dictation, reading and writing. I forgive them though because the district gave up on them by not hiring a stable teacher. Everyone loses because they lost the kids. Its a class of 38 btw.

          7. I think what you said was key. We have to forgive them they are children. And we can’t let ourselves succumb to the Atlas Complex. I know I do because you’re right it hurts when they say that stuff, but we don’t need everyone to love us, we just need to do what we can to do what we think is best for our students in our classrooms. And it sounds like you’ve got that covered.

          8. nhardt@charter.net

            Forgive them = tomorrow is another day. High five on the way out. Greet them when they come back in tomorrow.

            Another thing: when kids are not engaged: it may be a show. Keep teaching. It is amazing how much they are absorbing even when trying to act like they are not. That was how Embedded Reading came about.

  4. Alisa Shapiro-Rosenberg

    I am referring to curriculum – which in progressive ed is considered ‘a context for learning.’ Yes the positive behaviors that support acquisition are essential, but would we call them curriculum?
    I’m saying that S&S is a term that was established for maybe everything BUT SLA.

    1. I liked Steven’s suggestion of defining each term. Your right that curriculum is a wide-open, vague word and it’s great that we are questioning does this even apply to early language learning?

      I would say yes and no. Curriculum is a broad “context for learning” like you say, and it takes many forms. Curriculum is everything surrounding and giving structure to learning: who? will learn what? when or in what order? and how? I use the word curriculum because there is no other word to describe the goals that we want kids to be able to accomplish and for which proficiency levels. Curriculum can quickly get too complex and restraining. Scope and Sequence as a curriculum side-steps the hair-splitting “when? Week 1, 2, 3 or Chapters 1, 2, 3, or thematic units X, Y, Z. It simply states what performances (measurable actions) kids should be able to do at various ability levels. Can level 1s track a speaker and/or respond nonverbally with gestures? If so, they probably are growing adequately.

      Ben points out that language acquisition is an unconscious process. He’s right; it is. But only for the kids. We are consciously noticing kids behaviors (assessing). Those assessments-the one-word or nonverbal responses or whatever they can do MUST connect back to reasonable expectations we have for what they should be expected to say and do based on where they are in a Scope and Sequence. Our novice kid gives a cute one-word answer and we throw them a fiesta. Our French IV student only says one word for weeks at a time and we raise a red flag.

      Scope and Sequence is a looser form of curriculum but it’s still something that exists on the periphery of the lesson and the assessments. It’s a “context” surrounding and informing learning. This is not the “end of curriculum” and definitely not the “end of assessment.” It’s just defining and defending our curriculum, instruction, and assessments…which just in case you aren’t sick of me writing this… ALIGN.

      Aren’t we onto something big? Keep these lovely “What does this word really mean?” questions coming because they are so important and so overdue for most educators.

      1. “I would say yes and no.”

        To clarify, I would say yes, we have a curriculum in the sense that our Scope and Sequnce developped without target structures, themes or units, or textbook chapters…that’s still curriculum. That’s all the curriculum we need and none we don’t.

        I would say “no” to just any old curriculum. We are hot superstar TPRS divas and only the best unrestrictive curriculum will do. Alisa asked if the term was misleading and I would say maybe or maybe just confusing enough that we need to call it “Scope and Sequence” instead of the more vague word “curriculum” just to be more specific.

        Alisa said “It doesn’t matter what we teach first or next (other than hi-frequency, in-bounds and developmentally appropriate).”

        Yes. Great point. But the stuff in parentheses is kind of important. We can think of curriculum as parentheses around our instruction and assessments. They provide context for learning like you say.

        Billy (in French IV) said one word this month (and I’m concerned).

        Bobby (in French I) said one word this month (and I’m happy with his progress).

        1. Parentheses matter. Curriculum matters. But only if it helps us connect assessments and instruction. Only curriculum with authentic assessments will help Billy become our new barometer student and Bobby enjoy his assessment fiesta. If it doesn’t align curriculum, assessment, and instruction, it doesn’t help kids. And if it doesn’t help kids, we are going after it this Fall.

          1. Steven Ordiano

            The parenthesis is what matters. It the evidence piece of evaluation. Kinda like when dr. Stiggins mentions when a student goes beyond expectation. In a level on class, there is no forced output — in the context of negotiation of meaning. They are just expected to interpret meaning because of a silent period inherent in us all. So when a student spontaneously says something that is what is more important than a letter grade but im documenting it. We know our students the best and I think part of this process is showing that on paper… students get to demonstrate understanding in multiple ways. Look at the comments in my Google doc where I tie in multiple intelligences to demonstrate understanding. Some students chant with us, others act, others will be the artist etc…

          2. I tend to use the word assessment instead of evaluation which has judgment built in, but I get what you’re saying and I love it.

            Steven, I love that you mention that we can go higher, faster with a S&S if we don’t tie ourselves down to vertical alignment.

      2. Steven Ordiano

        Claire, what is your take on self evaluation? Ive noticed my students write what they are doing in class in L1 like “I retold the story!” Or “I was the artist.” Or “I responded with gestures”

        Dr. Stiggins reminds us to setup a safe environment where it okay to be “wrong”. Ive always said “be cool like me” when I give the slow/stop signal. So I see visually who is getting it. Then I slowly bring those kids back in. Some students have written “I used the stop signal”

        1. Peer and self-assessment is amazing and they are a key part of formative assessment. Both have to be done smartly with willing students and never for a grade. It’s a part of metacognition, which is everything in ESL. We not only self-monitor “do I understand?” but also “what do I do when I don’t understand?” because they face this hard reality of leaving my room and being lost in math, science, and ELA. Can they draw a picture of a math word problem or use context clues? That’s all metacognition.

          I explicitly teach ESL students strategies (Krashen concedes this is one instance where explicit instruction is needed for “survival” in US schools), but I skip this with my French kids. We use the stop signal and if they don’t understand they don’t waste time figuring out what to do, I slow down. I know you said you were investigating metacognition, Steven, and I love that, but just float on top of the lovely metacognitive pool, even though those waters are deep. In foreign language, anyways.

          1. Steven Ordiano

            Yeah, the metacognitive stuff really only applies to content areas and they are always in L1. I liked using it in a reflection for the freewrites to show progression. I may cut it down alot though. I would give more CI.

        2. “Dr. Stiggins reminds us to setup a safe environment where it okay to be “wrong”.
          I think Dr. Stiggins would approve of Ben’s Invisibles.

      3. Steven Ordiano

        “It simply states what performances (measurable actions) kids should be able to do at various ability levels. Can level 1s track a speaker and/or respond nonverbally with gestures? If so, they probably are growing adequately.”

        I know that performance or behaviors is what some district people want like instructional coaches, admins and other coordinators. But I feel as if we need to be able to include as many ways to demonstrate comprehension. What does that look like in terms of assessment? Drawing? seeing students read with ease? The other day I did a free reading time where they read their stories I then asked them what did you read? Students then responded with title names and I would retell details the best of my ability. Students were responding with “oh yeah, I remember” in L1.

        1. Check out my Scope and Sequence.

          I’m fine with L1 responses but it’s just trickier in ESL since we don’t all share L1s, so they may not be on the WIDA S&S.

          Yes, I include illustrations, which are largely considered a major pre-literacy skill. Some of my kids are not L1 literate, so they hang out there for a while. The next step would be labeling or copying from a model to match print and text, working up to writing independently. My Listen and Draw rubric aligns to this portion of the S&S, which gives this assessment higher criterion validity. Good news, guys something as simple as Listen and Draw is more valid because it’s more developmentally appropriate per my WIDA Scope & Sequence. We always felt L&D was better than a test, but know we explain to administrators, “No, really, it’s better than a test!”

          1. Maybe Listen and Draw is a good replacement for quick quizzes. It lets kids demonstrate comprehension and it is a “no wrong answers” kind of assessment.
            Maybe we start giving kids four or six or eight sentences or chinks of the story and they draw what they hear. Many of my writers would put a caption in L2 on there just cause that is how they are. Also, just like quick quizzes, Listen and Draw (Can’t call it L&D – that is taken – what can we call it?) provides more input, repeating the day’s language and the newly-created story.
            Oh! I just thought of this! What if the kids later, the next day, when they finally see the artist’s work that has been turned away from them, they add details to their drawings as you retell from the artists’ easel? Or they could add captions or thinking/talking bubbles.

          2. That’s a story retell, so it’s even more authentically related to what happened in class.

            Yes to the captions always.

          3. Steven Ordiano

            The format is awesome and clear. So what does an S and S look like for the work we do?

          4. Steven Ordiano

            There’s much output in the later levels. The doemat could work but the descriptions need to pertain to students taking an fl for 55 minutes or less. There is no high stakes state or national testing for our students like esl’s celdt testing in California. Thoughts?

          5. So I created two separate Scope and Sequences-one I shared with you, in the link above (and scattered all over the blog) and one I don’t think you need (so I didn’t share) unless you teach Heritage Learners that covers CALP.

            Don’t worry, the S&S I shared says Basic Interpersonal Conversational Speech (BICS) at the top and I took that to heart when designing it. It should work beautifully with a foreign language class, but maybe there’s supposed to be some sort of culture on there? (don’t get me started on culture).

            The one I shared with you was based on the WIDA performance indicators, but I weeded through 14 pages of indicators and I picked the most appropriate for BICS. It is appropriate for foreign language in my opinion.

            I definitely use the same instruction and assessment (rubrics) for ESL and French, and they are all based around the same curriculum (my S&S). But I’ve only taught foreign language half-time ONE year, so I’m not an expert. Maybe you do need to adapt it. If it never makes it’s way to the links or whatever, I’m okay with that. Just wanted to be helpful and show you my vision for curriculum.

            I know it’s unique and a minority voice and that’s okay if you feel like you can’t use it.

            Whatever you decide to use, my message is that a well-written Scope and Sequence can do amazing things for your program. It can mean the end of bullying for teachers and for kids.

            For example, mid-year I had this weird scheduling thing and my Newcomers class was dissolved mid-year and I had to really fight to get the Newcomers back in their own separate TPRS class. (TPRS for beginners, we can’t use TPRS for intermediate and advanced ELLs, they use CBI.)

            This was important for me to show my boss earlier this year when I was struggling to get the Newcomers there own class without any academic language as in SIOP or CBI. My two separate Scope and Sequences could be printed together, and I actually brought a copy of a docuemtn to that effect with me, but I showed him the continuum of where my kids were (I brought in my portfolios too) and with the Scope and Sequence, it was evident to my boss that BICS and CALP are two separate language proficiences. I dominated that conversation because I had this document in my hand. I explained that no, my Newcomers who don’t know BICS can not benefit from academic language at all, and they NEED TPRS and their own class.

            My Newcomers got their whole schedules moved around and my boss (begrudgingly at first) got on board with the idea that Newcomers can’t be ignored anymore. Learning English on the playground = Bad Programming. That doesn’t happen at my school mostly because I have a Scope and Sequence to legitimize the need for appropriate instruction and assessment for beginning ELLs.

            Use my Scope and Sequence or don’t. It doesn’t matter to me. But DO advocate for what is developmentally appropriate for your kids in a smart way (like with some sort of well-designed S&S). No more faux curriculum or pandering.

          6. “… I am shouting of my friends to go down this road with me but no one is listening…”

            Oh no I wasn’t talking about you guys you guys listen and you make me feel normal and sane so thank you. I wanted to say my ESL teacher friends weren’t listening to me and following me down this road to TPRS and appropriate grouping for newcomers. I suspect many ESL teachers in many of your buildings have the same problem.

            Lance asked me yesterday what it was like getting my school to approve of my curriculum and I’ll be honest it’s not easy. I was on the verge of tears during this conversation with my principal. But I was armed with knowledge. Things have to change and we have to be smart enough to articulate why for our student sake.

            Yesterday I said this:
            “This was important for me to show my boss earlier this year… I showed him the continuum of where my kids were (I brought in my portfolios too) and with the Scope and Sequence, it was evident to my boss that BICS and CALP are two separate language proficiences. I dominated that conversation because I had this document in my hand. I explained that no, my Newcomers who don’t know BICS can not benefit from academic language at all, and they NEED TPRS and their own class.”

            S&S is power to show admin how we are bridging our assessment of student proficiency and the ability-appropriate instruction we use. Curriculum, assessment, instruction all align and it’s all about the kids and protecting them from developmentally inappropriate curriculum (for me, it’s CBI, for you it’s textbooks).

            Guys, I’m not kidding. This document protects kids. But I also said with my anecdote yesterday that if you don’t like this S&S or prefer different curriculum, it’s okay. Use whatever showcases best what your kids can DO… Not the words or themes you want them to know, what they can do and nothing that they shouldn’t be able to do (forced output, complex grammar, etc.)

            Make it all about your kids, though.

          7. …not the words or themes you want them to know, what they can do….

            Amen. That’s our job. Not to advertise what we want them to know (but can’t) but what they can actually do. Whoah! That’s radical!

          8. I do too, I really really like it, once I finally took the time to look at it. I need to look MORE at it but I liked what I saw. It seems like it will be a good resource for us in a S and S for World Languages, maybe without even modifying it too much. Also I looked (like skimmed in the fastest way) at the actual WIDA standards and they are really neat, the way they are organized. I want to look at them more fully as well. But I think that will have to wait (just like the watching of Keri’s videos) for summer. June 9!

    2. I would think of behaviors a part of curriculum, yes, because even in ELA we teach “readerly habits” and “writerly habits” and in Science they learn “habits of mind” and in language classes they learn “interpersonal communication skills”

      1. Yes, so say Rick Stiggins, John Biggs, Larry Ainsworth, and Bob Marzano.

        (Can we take a minute to sigh for the fact that these and most leaders in education -or any field- are all white males? Sigh. Okay, I’m done, no more of that, I promise.)

  5. Alisa Shapiro-Rosenberg

    Interesting to consider a different framework for our different work. The UDL is nice and broad but again, seems to be about discipline content, and not about acquisition.
    Also it seems like curriculum, instruction and assessment are very different for the novice as opposed to the intermediate and beyond student. Almost as different as elementary vs. high school…

  6. UDL does seem like discipline content or subject matter.

    You raise a good point. A framework should be divided into age groups not necessarily levels such as Level 1 or Level 2.

    I would be focused on ages 11-14. Would the curriculum be different? The instruction would be different thatn say high schools. and the assessments might need to be tweaked. I guess as long as they are student-centered.

    I think that this is better than we ever thought!

  7. Kristen ND Wolf

    My heart is singing! This discussion is just what I needed. As a kid with “learning disabilities” , I always felt as though I was crammed in a box and often misunderstood. Don’t lose focus on the kids. WE ARE ASSESSING, ALWAYS. It’s communication, people. Pure and simple. Thank you all. Let’s do this.

  8. Kristen ND Wolf

    YES! Have you read the book “Where the mountain meets the moon” By Grace Lin? I am reading it now with my own children and the messages are incredibly uplifting and powerful. One of the many beautiful metaphors she uses to convey inner power is the kite. Grace Lin masterfully weaves culture into a stunning story about a wise, strong girl who makes a journey to help her parents and her village. She sets out to bring them all joy and yet she finds it was at home all along. I highly recommend it.

    Thank you all for welcoming me with open minds and hearts!

  9. Cherie Thomas

    Claire, I love reading your comments and posts. You so clearly articulated what has been in my heart about “scope and sequence” and “vertical alignment” every time someone asks me if I’m preparing my kids for what the French 2 teacher will expect at the HS. If we aren’t focusing on the kids and what is developmentally appropriate for them, and not what a page in a book tells us to do on a given day, then we should not be doing this work.

    And thank you for your recent “ra ra” comment when I voiced my anxiety over my upcoming vertical meeting! 🙂

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